Let’s define bilingualism simply as the ability to express oneself with ease in two […] This paper reviews both research on the cognitive effects of bilingualism and research on the cognitive effects of biliteracy. There are different definitions of the bilingualism in the scientific literature, for example, K.Kh. Bilingualism refers to a phenomenon that involves a person’s ability to understand and speak at least two languages. Thus, bilingualism is a result of “psycholinguistic functioning of the mind when having two codes” (Ceroz & Gorter, 2011, p. 357). A person develops such an ability in his/her childhood while having an exposure to two different languages. The need to understand the phenomenon of bilingualism in the context of the development of cultural values is the major task of the present stage of development of civilization. Therefore, more than one language is spoken by people in the frameworks of social, working and family life. It has been estimated that more than half the world's population is bilingual, that is lives with two or more languages. Bilingualism is found in all parts of the world, at all levels of society, in all age groups. What is more, there is a universality of bilingualism and multilingualism throughout history. Thus, bilingualism is an extensive cultural, linguistic, and cognitive phenomenon that is extensively carried out in modern society. Many Bilingualism bridges the understanding of the world around us, communicating with others, promoting the sharing of cultural phenomena. ... Bilingualism, in other words, seems to have a protective effect on cognitive decline. The phenomenon of whether cognitive advantages are associated with bilingualism has been widely debated. However, it bears negative connotations and is often replaced by terms such as ‘non-native’ or ‘intentional bilingualism’. There may be distinctions between ability and use of a language, or differences in proficiency between the two languages. Even in countries with many monolinguals, the percentage of bilinguals is high. Learn more in: The Phenomenon of Bilingualism in Slovakia: Raising a Bilingual Child in a Monolingual Culture – A Family Case Study on Intentional Bilingualism as a Communication Strategy Nevertheless, it is also possible to notice that multilingualism is a result of … WRONG. The conclusions are that bilingualism and multilingualism are a necessity and an inevitable phenomenon in today’s Europe, especially due to migration and due to the need of adapting to and accepting other cultures. This phenomenon is connected with the notion of codes. Bilingualism is an increasingly common phenomenon also among children. The present chapter deals with the phenomenon of bilingualism in Slovakia in general and the concept of so-called intentional bilingualism in particular. 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