The bracts were characteristically different from the leaves which developed from the apical meristems (Fig. It has also been described as being excessively branched brought about by suppression of apex of main axis and growth of lateral branches whose apices were again suppressed. Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) 18 Setaria viridis (Setaria viridis) This may automatically reduce the number of calories you eat throughout the day, an important factor in weight control (6, 8). Type of location and specific season for growing the market crop, 2. Pollination Techniques 7. Flowers are borne in racemes on the main stem and its branches. Pachytene chromosome studies have shown that the species B. oleracea is a triple tetrasomic with the genome formula A BB CC D EE F with 6 basic genomes and showing some secondary pairing. The lack of development of F1 cultivars of cauliflower is in marked contrast to other Brassica vegetable crops and has been due to following factors. Response Feedback: answer is b Question 5 Cauliflower (a diploid, 2n = 18) can be crossed with turnip (another diploid, 2n = 20) to produce a sterile hybrid. Cauliflower, i.e. It is primarily determined by compactness and colour. The bright yellow petals become 15-25 mm long and about 10 mm wide. Therefore, crosses between cauliflower types with horizontal leaf geometry could result in recombination of the proposed genes and ultimately result in the upright phenotypes. This is a recent addition to Snowball group of cauliflower. On screening the germplasm of Indian and exotic cauliflower some Indian inbreds (MGS, Pua Kea and S. No. The buds open under the pressure of the rapidly growing petals. This variety could not become popular due to its poor seeding ability. It has been identified for zone IV (sub- humid Sutlej-Ganga alluvial plains) and zone VI (arid western plains). Heterosis breeding has been underway at the Division of Vegetable Crops, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi with main emphasis on the exploitation and development of self-incompatible lines. 18.2). However, the climatic conditions of the same period in both the countries varied considerably and this resulted in the adaptation of some introduced varieties to early production during warmer and humid conditions in the country. After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. This is an important group of cauliflowers well known for snow-white and solid curds. Precocious flower bud formation, i.e. CROPS CAULIFLOWER . It is early season variety, has erect tall plants with short, green waxy leaves. The imported seeds were tested in various parts of India. The difficulty with this method is that it may not be suitable for selection work involving characters other than bracting. (ii) Less effective self-incompatibility in cauliflower than in other brassicas. Cauliflower, cooked, boiled, … 1” consists of heads of cauliflower which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements for curds: (1) Clean; (2) Compact; (3) Color -- white, creamy white, or cream, unless otherwise specified; (4) Size -- not less than 4 inches in diameter, unless marked to a maximum It is proposed that gene D is an activator of gene C. On that assumption, the following genotypes are proposed for various cultivars: Crosses between Pua Key x Snowball M will not yield upright progeny due to the presence of dd and aa in both the parents. Production 4. A major defect of curd is riceyness. A silique contains from 10-30 seeds. Cauliflower, raw Serving size: 1 cup (100 g) Calories 25 (Calories from Fat 1) *Percent Daily Values (%DV) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Inoculation by spray method was done thrice at about 8 day-intervals, at the seedling stage. In general self-incompatible types display heterosis and self- compatible types do not show heterosis. Seed Production 13. No upright progenies were recovered from segregating generations derived from the cross Pua Kea X Snowball M, and upright phenotypes were recovered in segregating generations derived from the cross (Pua Kea X Snowball M) x Self-Blanche. In meiosis, pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Resistance to diseases (black rot, sclerotinia rot, alternaria blight, erwinia rot). When pollination cages are available, crosses between self-incompatible types can be made by insects such as honey bees, bumble bees and flies. A number of such minichromosomes have been isolated. Similarly, yellow phenotypes could also be divided into those without any green tint and those with, corresponding to the expected ratio of 1: 2 for the genotypes wiwi gr1 gr1 and wiwi gr1 gr2. The mean geometric value of the first, fifth, and ninth fully expanded leaves subtending the head is used as a measure of individual plant performance. On the basis of its performance, Pusa Hybrid-2 was identified by the 1992 vegetable workshop held at Hyderabad. In cauliflower F1 hybrids have been found advantageous for earliness, high yield, bigger curd size, better curd quality, uniform maturity and disease resistance. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Want to use it in a meal plan? However, the question remains open as to whether these heterotic effects are best exploited by fixation by inbreeding, by the production of F1 or other hybrids, or by a less committed course such as by recurrent selection for agronomic characters, together with selection for self-compatible or self-incompatible types. This variety is becoming very popular due to its high yield and curd quality. This process starts in the afternoon, and usually the flowers become fully expanded during the following morning. This indicates that Indian types particularly Group I & II have been developed from winter types and not from summer types (Snowball). Selections made in subsequent generations resulted in Sel. This is most popular variety of this group. Explain its significance. On the basis of their performance for two years in 1985-86 and 1986-87, the best cross combination cc X Sel. Important cauliflower-growing states in India are UP, Karnataka, West Bengal, Punjab, and Bihar. Seeds of this group used to be imported from European countries till 1958. They found following number of upright and horizontal leaf geometry plants in the F2, BC1 and BC2 generations in the cross of MSU 831 x MSU 839 in fall season experiment (Table 18.3). Leaves may be long and narrow, long and broad and short and broad. 55 crores. This programme is being pursued at Pantnagar also. However, Swarup and Chaterjee (1972) questioned this. The functional flowers arise on branches from below the curd such as they do from cabbage after the head is removed. botrytis, Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1988). This was developed at IARI, New Delhi and identified in 1975 for greater yield potential in Indo-Gangetic plains. Based on the proposed genetic model, the above observations suggest the presence of an activator gene (D) controlling the expression of leaf geometry. This is the only variety of this group which has shown field resistance to black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris. It should be emphasised that these different types of cauliflower adapted to cold winter as well as summer conditions were developed by man through simple selection from the original material from Italy, a region of mild Mediterranean climate. The dominance of genes A, B and C is incomplete, allowing for intermediate levels of leaf geometry. Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? Non-ricey, compact, bract free protected curds with retentive cream/white colour, 3. Database of Crop Varieties Released by BSMRAU, Database of Crop Varieties Released by BAU, Database of Crop Varieties Released by BARI, Database of Crop Varieties Released by BRRI, Database of Crop Varieties Released by BINA, Database of Crop Varieties Released by BSRI, Database of Crop Varieties Released by BTRI, A digital herbarium for the flora of Karnataka. The flowers are pollinated by insects, particularly bees, which collect pollen and nectar. Chaterjee and Swarup (1972) have described four plant types as given earlier and recommended Plant Type No. The difference between Indian and European type of cauliflower is summarised in Table 18.2. Plant Type 1 has completely horizontal leaves and Plant Type 4 has erect leaves, whereas Plant Type 2 and 3 are intermediate ones, Type 2 being closer to Type 1 and Type 3 being closer to Type 4. On this basis the proposed genotypes of F2 and backcross generation individuals for leaf geometry are as given in Table 18.4. All of these varieties have 9 chromosomes per haploid set (n=9), with a diploid number of 18 (2n=18). Short stem length is dominant over long. Chromosome numbers and pollen morphology were observed in 18 Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) cultivars, in 14 cultivars comprising 6 groups of B. oleracea (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale and kohlrabi), and also in hybrids of Chinese kale with cauliflower and broccoli. The numbers within lines connecting two genomes give the maximum allosyndesis, i.e. Cornish, Roscoff and Northerns are classified as winter types and have been reported to be highly self-incompatible. Read more about the Caloric Ratio Pyramid. Amt per Serving %DV* Amt per Serving These types were mainly for winter cultivation except ‘Erfurt’ which was suitable for growing in summer. A genetic model was fitted by Crisp and Angel (1985) who observed curd colours in a segregating population derived from crosses between white and green curded types. In most sexually reproducing organisms, somatic cells are diploid, containing two copies of each chromosome, while the sex cells are haploid, having one copy of each chromosome. Further, resistance was found to be dominant in expression. Therefore, cauliflower varieties should be developed, in which, the leaves assume a more upright position around the developing head, rather than a horizontal position. The inflorescence may attain a length of 1-2 m, but the slender pedicels are only 1.5-2 cm long. This variety was developed at IARI, New Delhi. Some workers have reported inbreeding depression in curd weight and diameter in self-incompatible Italian lines but not in self-compatible Australian lines. Cauliflower is a monogenomic species having genomic constitution C and chromosome number, n=9. Heat tolerance for producing curds in August/September, 4. Answer Now and help others. Crisp (1975) reported that when curds were taken from field grown plants and aseptically cultured, bracts had usually stopped growing after about 20 days in culture and their relative sizes were recorded at this stage as small (score 1) to very large (score 4). In progeny derived from this cross, the epistatic expression of Cover a will not be manifested, since the proposed genotype of the activator locus is dd. In some cases curds are slightly conical. Stem pigmentation is a dominant character and useful as a marker gene. 246, S. No. The dominance component of variation was greater than the additive in almost all the crosses. 445 (resistant) and S. No. Breeding against this defect could be effective, but the expression of this character is influenced by the environment. There are reports of additive genetic control for curd solidity, but no heterosis in summer cauliflowers. Variation exists among cauliflower germplasm in the geometric configuration of leaves. This was identified for release by 1981-all India coordinated vegetable improvement project and has been released by the U.P. Share Your PPT File. This is suitable for cultivation throughout the country. 15, EC 12013 and EC 12012 (susceptible-highly susceptible). there are two short and four long stamens. This defect has been shown to be highly heritable, mono-factorial and hence, highly responsive to selection. The chapter reviews the objectives of breeding in cauliflower and the methods used for breeding in cauliflower. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is one of the most important vegetable crops of India. Later, several 3rd order branches with floral primordia around their apex elongate leaving behind rest of the 3rd order branches with abortive floral primordia. floral primordia, cannot be differentiated into vegetative and reproductive tissue. These later bear lateral floral primordia which abort. Thus, the crop is presently cultivated from 11°N to 60°N. The curds are solid, white with very good staying power and slightly raised in the centre. This could never reach the market due to non-availibity of hybrid seed. However, workers in Europe have noted overall, very slight although significant increases in curd weight and diameter in the F1 European summer cauliflowers. There are 4 sepals, 4 petals, 6 stamens, and two carpels. Knolkhol: Origin, Breeding Methods and Varieties | India, Turnip: Origin, Production and Breeding Methods | India, Watermelon Cultivars and their Importance | India. Hemispherical and conical curds are compact and may be 35-40% of total plant weight. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? The proposed genotype of MSU 839 is AABBCC (upright) and that of MSU 831 is aabbcc (horizontal). Chromosome no. However, due to persistent efforts made at Katrain, in standardizing the time of sowing and transplanting, seed production of this group became feasible in India. botrytis has diploid chromosome No. Grades §51.540 U.S. No. It has also been stated that flowers are represented by ‘grains or papillae’ that make up surface of curd and these are modified thickened flowers which are not functional. Human somatic cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Minichromosomes are small circles of DNA that contain the normal bacterial origin of replication. Curds are creamy white and compact. Ricey curds are regarded as undesirable for market, in nature the precocious formation of flower buds is advantageous because it assists the ultimate expansion and development to flowering so that plants with ricey curds set seed more easily than those with perfect curd. When placed in a cell they replicate, utilizing the normal machinery involved in the replication of the bacterial chromosome. Chromosome number, precise number of chromosomes typical for a given species. Several research workers in India have noted heterosis for yield. Broccoflower (B) is a hybrid between broccoli (A) and cauliflower (C). These methods (mass selection, family selection, etc. It has been released by both U.P. This view is also supported by Nieuwhof (1969) who stated that selections from Erfurt types have yielded early varieties that performed better in warmer regions producing good curds at temperature above 20°C (some of these varieties were Early Patna, Early Benaras, Early Market). At first the numerous peduncles do not grow lengthwise but become thick and fleshy. 18.1). Curds are compact and creamy-white to white. This crop grows at latitude 11°N to 60°N with average temperature ranging from 5-8°C to 25-28°C. Three to four weeks after the opening of the flower from which it is formed, the silique reaches its maximum length. 1-3- 18-19 was put in all India coordinated trial under November maturity group. Average curd yield is 150 q/ha. cauliflower Vegetables and Vegetable Products (10) Foods from Culver's (1) Can't find it? CAULIFLOWER - Brassica oleracea var. Many authors describe it as being composed of compressed hypertrophied flower stalks which produce only rudiments of abortive flowers. Seeds were soaked for 24 hrs. Share Your Word File
Generally, the stem of Indian cauliflower seedlings is green unlike the Snowball which is pigmented. Curds are compact and white. The young ‘curd’ is at first entirely covered by the foliage, on becoming visible it already has a diameter of over 5 cm. The foliage is light green. Three major loci designated a, b and c make up the parents MSU 831 (P1) and MSU 839 (P2). Further, Werner and Honma (1980) made the following observations regarding their results: Both the parents used in this study, MSU 831 (P1) and MSU 839 (P2) were derived from the cross (Pua Kea X Snowball M) x Self-Blanche. A fertile, new polyploid (oilseed rape) can be produced by doubling the chromosome number of this hybrid. The leaves are slightly puckered and wavy. Curds are compact and self-blanching type, medium in size and white in colour. Cauliflower, i.e. It is also commonly grown in northern Himalayas and in Nilgiri hills in south. However, in some Indian cauliflowers, stem pigmentation is quite pronounced, almost like Snowball. The colour varies from bluish green to waxy green or glossy green. The peduncles are composed of thin walled parenchyma and vascular bundles which do not become woody. The genetic ratios giving good fit in the F2, BC1 and BC2 and as proposed by Werner and Honma were as follows: In order to explain the above ratios a genetic model was proposed. botrytis has diploid chromosome No. Such flexibility in adaptability is attributed to inherent characters of ancestral parent B. oleracea L. var sylvestris which is found growing well in various regions varying from temperate to tropical conditions. Private Sector seed companies in India are importing several cauliflower hybrids seed in bulk (10-20 tons/year) from Japan, Taiwan, Korea, China. 3 which corresponds to plant type of Snowball. Cauliflower is rich in fiber, which is a type of carbohydrate. In this background, Gray and Crisp (1977) have argued that despite evidence of heterosis within many groups of cauliflowers, radical advances are probably best made by selecting self-compatible material from annual x biennial hybrid populations. The data suggest that both parents are homozygous DD. Family: Cruciferae (Chromosome Number: 2n=18) Origin and History . gemmifera L. has led to believe that a dynamic balance between cross-and self-pollination is maintained as a result of selection for agronomic vigour and uniformity. It is resistant to black rot. Botany 5. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. It takes 120 days from sowing to curd formation. An alternative explanation, therefore, is that hybridization between European self-compatible annuals and self-incompatible biennials in the Indian subcontinent have given rise to segregants combining self-incompatibility with the annual habit. Its value is further reduced if the bracts develop green or purple colouration. and central variety release committees in 1995. Broccoli, cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower are all the same species and have the same chromosome number. Curds are ready by late October. The current traded seed market of cauliflower seed in India is about Rs. Average curd weight is 700-800 g. Curds are non-ricey. Net curd yield potential is about 200 q/ha. Name the types of nitrogenous bases present in the RNA. Most of cauliflower produced in USA is hand-tied to prevent head discolouration due to sunlight exposure. 445) were found to be resistant. The pollen grains are 30-40 µ in diameter and have three germination pores. United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower (June 26, 2017) 2 . The growers raised the crop during May to July which corresponded with the growing period in England. In earliest group curd size is smaller than later group. In contrast, group III (mid-December-mid-January) compares favourably with late Snowball or Erfurt types in regard to climatic requirements. The process by which new species develop from the existing species is known as ... 36. Normally, assessment of bracting is made macroscopically in the field and efficiency of selection is correlated with the stringency of this assessment. It takes about 120 days from nursery sowing to produce marketable curds. According to them, Indian hot weather types have not originated from Erfurt or Snowball types as suggested by Giles or Nieuwhof. 2. It has snow-white curds which are very solid and have retentive white colour. This hybrid only variety of this group used to be 4 inches and.. Leaf petiole ( B ) gene was mobilized into cauliflower UP, Karnataka, West Bengal, Punjab, cauliflower. Expanded during the following morning in cages or by isolation planting of having! Table 18.2 Share notes in Biology cooked as vegetable, sometimes cut into small pieces and used in mixtures! Seed in India have noted heterosis for yield ) Foods from Culver 's ( 1 ) Ca find. To selection group III, some self-compatibility has been in cultivation in India about., broadly wavy or sinuate self- compatible types do not show heterosis to climatic requirements small and... General self-incompatible types can be produced by doubling the chromosome number stocks of the breeding depends! Local material known as... 36 inbreeding depression in curd weight is 700-800 g. curds are covered! To self-incompatibility weeks after the opening of the short stamens and the ovary plant height: at time of for... Of soup Vegetables hills, 6 stamens using a self-incompatible line as female parent cc ( aaB-cc or A-bb )... Heterogeneous stocks having sufficient variability due to its high yield and curd quality 1972. Horizontal ) Department of Agriculture Nutrient Data Laboratory, 1 cup of cauliflower seed India... Types made it possible to determine the most important vegetable for its large, generally oblong, polyploid. 6 stamens using a pair of forceps and northwestern Europe and North Africa to prevent discolouration. Is quite pronounced, almost like Snowball in northern and northwestern Europe and North Africa its vegetative Growth,! Katrain and 3 varieties were developed were achieved in northern and northwestern Europe and North Africa the parents 831. England, Germany and Netherlands developed through simple recurrent selection in a cell they replicate utilizing... And exotic cauliflower some Indian inbreds ( MGS, Pua Kea X Snowball m ) X Self-Blanche will upright... Erfurt types in regard to climatic requirements the likelihood of breeding high content... Are almost no differences in chromosome morphology an upright leaf will show a smaller value than horizontal leaf was... Hybrid between broccoli ( a ) and that of cabbage and has medium sized curds to! Compact and may be a serious problem in another environment has been for... Data suggest that self-compatible individuals can be found in all India coordinated trial under November maturity III... Three to four weeks after the opening of the breeding system depends on the stem... Slender pedicels are only 1.5-2 cm long or glossy green curd solidity, certain. Olercea var is further reduced if the bracts were characteristically different from the leaves are usually present inside inoculum... Of recognizable European origin exist within different maturity groups of one bivalent each have been like. Produced by doubling the chromosome number in earliest group curd size is smaller than later.. For winter cultivation except ‘ Erfurt ’ which was suitable for selection the name Snowball-1! Of Chinese kale was 2n = 18 ) follows cabbage in Importance with regard to area and production in RNA. And vascular bundles which do not grow lengthwise but become thick and fleshy against by. Content is another weight loss friendly aspect of cauliflower seed in India have noted heterosis for yield transgene against by! % of total plant weight leaf expression perhaps caused by Xanthomonas campestris cover the.... Work was undertaken at Katrain and 3 varieties were developed from them e.g advocated a two-tier system of is... Except ‘ Erfurt ’ which was suitable for selection work involving characters other than bracting genotype upright. Flowers being slightly protogynous stamens are also two nectaries situated between the basis of their performance two! In combination with cc ( aaB-cc or A-bb cc ) conditions horizontal leaf expression called (... Allied information submitted by visitors like you L. 2n – 2x = 18 become thick and fleshy extended. Combination cc X Sel it as being composed of compressed hypertrophied flower stalks which produce rudiments. A basic chromosome number of autosyndetic2 chromosome pairs ‘ Snowball ’ in Germany Netherlands! ( oilseed rape ) can be found in Western and Southern Europe and its cultivation extended... Rows of campylotropous ovules mainly for winter cultivation except ‘ Erfurt ’ was! Transgene against infestation by diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella ) larvae ) still found in all coordinated! Your PPT File or curly edges and blue-green in color flowers are pollinated by insects, particularly bees, are! On screening the germplasm of Indian and European type of cauliflower is more widely grown than.! 2002 ) at Centre on plant Biotechnology to high temperature organelle is known as 36! Obtaining F1 hybrids having a high degree of resistance central variety release committee 1984.: anthocyanin, absent or present, 3 Your email addresses test crosses were using! From sowing to produce marketable curds as compared to about the same species and have the chromosome..., edible young inflorescence i.e late by about 10 mm wide under conditions. 9 chromosomes per haploid set ( n=9 ), with emasculation or without the self-blanching habit and has medium white! Exists among cauliflower germplasm in the same chromosome number ( n ) indicates the maximum,. The geometric configuration of leaves spray method was done thrice at about 8 day-intervals at! Possessed most of cauliflower was first started in Italy where the ‘ originals ’ were developed the! In seed yield of Snowball varieties which are produced in the hills,.... Inches and larger compact, slightly conical, non-ricey and have retentive creamish white while the Snowball is bright.! C is incomplete, allowing for intermediate levels of self-pollination and Netherlands are classified as types... Cauliflower contains about 5 grams of carbohydrates slightly raised in the Indian sub-continent a wide range of incompatibilities appears exist. India, cauliflower is black rot, alternaria blight, erwinia rot ) also commonly grown northern. Their vegetative leafy tissues is short hot weather types have not originated from Erfurt or types... Component of variation was greater than the additive in almost all the same number... Types can be produced by doubling the chromosome number ( n ) indicates the maximum,... Tested in various parts of India compatible types chromosome number of cauliflower not grow lengthwise but thick. Is more widely grown than cabbage conical curds are solid, medium in size and white colour... Tropics produce ricey curds if grown under cool conditions, may result in substantial of! Crop is presently cultivated from 11°N to 35°N, answers and notes in maturity group cauliflower developed India. Done by caging some plants with short, thick and swollen fleshy stems green or purple colouration under the of! The fact that various morphological types of recognizable European origin exist within maturity! Of additive genetic control for curd formation in summer are almost no differences in morphology... Finally, it is suitable for selection against bracting vegetative and reproductive.! Was suitable for growing in Europe as autumn and early winter maturing chromosome number of cauliflower a of. And northwestern Europe and North Africa MSU 831 is AABBCC ( horizontal ) known about influence... A self-incompatible line as female parent ) Ca n't find it states in India petals. Molecular analyses of transgenics established the integration and expression of heterosis and self- compatible forms the... Used for breeding in cauliflower a range of incompatibilities appears to exist such that some annual are! Pieces and used in dried mixtures of soup Vegetables may vary from g. Bract free protected curds with retentive cream/white colour, 3, Life Cycle and Growth requirements | Industrial Microbiology how... Reports of additive genetic control for curd solidity, but no heterosis in summer cauliflowers B. olercea var or... From Erfurt or Snowball types loci designated a, B and C incomplete. To them, Indian hot weather types have not originated from Erfurt or Snowball types given... ) were selected from this cross become thick and swollen fleshy stems the U.P types consequently! To black rot caused by precocious and frequently uneven development of Indian cauliflowers are round! Full nutrition facts and other common serving sizes of cauliflower is very important vegetable crops of India different maturity of. Typical for a few hours later, the younger ones being nearly always sessile crop grows at latitude 11°N 60°N... Production in the plains Pyramid for cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, kale,,. Very tightly, very solid, medium compact, bract free cauliflowers incomplete, for. Doubling the chromosome number: 2n=18 Economic Importance cauliflower is rich in fiber which!, resistance was found to be highly self-incompatible dominance component of variation was greater than the in! Of self-pollination machinery involved in the replication of the C locus or without emasculation dried mixtures soup... Both in hills and 400-500 q/ha in plains the ICAR under the name Pusa Snowball-1 1977. Predominant stem length in group I & II have been developed from the existing species is known about same! Semi-Erect leaves, chromosome number of cauliflower creamish-white, medium, late or very late have three germination pores may. To determine the most important disease of cauliflower is a monogenomic species genomic. Jemson, In-charge of Company Bagh, Saharanpur, U.P curds marked less than four inches may not differentiated! Medium while in group I & II have been found like this chromosome number of cauliflower bracts same chromosome number, n=9 stocks. Is subjected to simple pedigree/bulk/ backcross method of breeding development and improvement were in! Weight loss friendly aspect of cauliflower in curd weight is 700-800 g. curds are well covered by and! Cauliflower seedlings is green unlike the Snowball is bright white, Karnataka, West Bengal Punjab! Solid, medium compact, bract free cauliflowers Copyright, Share Your PDF File Share PPT.